Though best known for his co-discovery of HIV, Gallo and his team in the early 80s also pioneered the development of the HIV blood test, which enabled health care workers for the first time to screen for the AIDS virus - leading to a more rapid diagnosis while simultaneously protecting patients receiving blood transfusions. His research also helped physicians develop HIV therapies to prolong the lives of those infected with the virus. And, in 1996, his discovery that a natural compound known as chemokines can block the HIV virus and halt the progression of AIDS was hailed by Science magazine as one of that year's most important scientific breakthroughs.
Prior to the AIDS epidemic, Gallo was the first to identify a human retrovirus and the only known human leukemia virus - HTLV - one of few known viruses shown to cause a human cancer. In 1976, he and his colleagues discovered Interleukin-2, which is a growth regulating substance now used as therapy in some cancers and sometimes AIDS. And in 1986, he and his group discovered the first new human herpes virus in more than 25 years (HHV-6), which was later shown to cause an infantile disease known as Roseola and currently is hypothesized as a strong suspect in the origin of multiple sclerosis.
Today, Dr. Gallo's work continues at the IHV, a first-of-its-kind virology center that combines the disciplines of research, patient care and prevention programs in a concerted effort to speed the pace of progress. The Institute is a part of the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute and is affiliated with University of Maryland Medicine.
Lusso P, Crowley RW, Malnati MS, Ponzoni M, Di Serio C, Biancotto A, Markham PD, Gallo RC. Accelerated progression to AIDS in macaques coinfected with simian immunodeficiency virus and human herpesvirus 6A. Retrovirology, 3Suppl. 1:S62, 2006.
Lusso P, Crowley RW, Malnati MS, De Serio C, Ponzoni M, Biancotto A, Markham PD, and Gallo RC. HHV-6A Accelerates AIDS Progression in Macaques. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. (on-line), 2007.
Rad FH, Le Buanec H, Paturance S, Larcier P, Genne P, Ryffel B, Bensussan A, Bizzini B, Gallo, RC, Zagury D, Uzan G. VEGF kinoid vaccine, a therapeutic approach against tumor angiogenesis and metastases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, vo1. 104, No. 8, pp. 2837-42, 2007.